We do not know the identity of the photographer. Some of the images are slightly blurred, which indicates that the men may have found it taxing to remain still for the duration of the exposure, which in the s would have lasted a number of seconds. Some of the soldiers have gained weight over the years since they fought for the Emperor; their uniforms have been let out to accommodate their girth. Monsieur Loria seems to have lost his right eye. The Graf Zeppelin in World's first commercial airline left onlookers in complete awe.
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Tips for Single Women, Circa Studio The Star-Magnet of the s. Living With an Ocelot. In a Manhattan Apartment. The appointment of ADC to the Emperor was so influential that they were considered to be "Napoleon's eyes and ears" and even marshals were wise to follow their advice and render them the respect due to their function. On 29 April , a decree organized their service.
Every morning at , the duty ADC and his staff were relieved and the new ADC for the next 24 hours had to present the Emperor with a list of names of the staff under his command. This would consist of two supplementary daytime general ADCs and one night ADC, one equerry and through a rotation system half the number of orderly officers, half the number of the petits aides de camp two or three personal ADCs to the general ADCs, who might also be commanded directly by the Emperor and half the number of pages. Their number differed from time to time, but only 37 officers were ever commissioned ADC to the Emperor and at normal times their number was restricted to Each of these officers wore the normal general's uniform of his rank, but with gold aiguilettes as the symbol of his function.
The appointment of ADC to the Emperor did not always last as long as the Emperor's reign; an ADC might be given another position such as a field command, a governorship, etc. The officiers d'ordonnance orderly officers may be considered as junior ADCs, with the rank of chef d'escadron , captain or lieutenant. They, too, were used for special missions such as reconnaissance and inspections, but also to carry written orders.
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The decrees regulating their service were signed on 15, 19 and 24 September and finally on 19 September Since the earliest collaboration of Napoleon and Berthier, its organization was more or less fixed and it would see only slight changes during the later campaigns of the Empire. The General Headquarters was Berthier's unique domain and the Emperor respected this demarcation. Its personnel received orders only from Berthier and even Napoleon did not interfere in its immense tasks; he would never walk in on Berthier's private staff while they were writing and copying the orders that he had just given.
Since the Emperor was his own "operations officer", it can be said that Berthier's job consisted of absorbing Napoleon's strategic intentions, translating them into written orders and transmitting them with the utmost speed and clarity. He also received in the Emperor's name the reports of the marshals and commanding generals and when necessary signed them on Napoleon's behalf.
Detailed reports on everything that occurred for good or ill were to be sent to Berthier, who would in turn select the most important ones and transmit them to the Emperor; nothing was to be concealed from Napoleon. Lest one think this was a safe officejob of the modern staff officers, a contemporary subordinate staff officer, Brossier, reports that at the Battle of Marengo : "The General-in-Chief Berthier gave his orders with the precision of a consummate warrior, and at Marengo maintained the reputation that he so rightly acquired in Italy and in Egypt under the orders of Bonaparte.
He himself was hit by a bullet in the arm. Two of his aides-de-camp, Dutaillis and La Borde, had their horses killed. It was subdivided into several Corps usually from five to seven , each numbering anywhere between 10, to 50,, with the average size being around 20, to 30, troops. While capable of fully independent operations and of defending themselves until reinforced, the Corps usually worked in close concert together and kept within a day's marching distance of one another.
The Corps would often follow separate routes on a wide front and were small enough to live by foraging, allowing fewer supplies to be carried.
Napoleon placed great trust in his Corps commanders and usually allowed them a wide freedom of action, provided they acted within the outlines of his strategic objectives and worked together to accomplish them. When they failed to do this to his satisfaction, however, he would not hesitate to reprimand or relieve them and in many cases took personal command of their Corps himself.
These were only temporary groupings, however, and it was not until that Napoleon made them permanent units. He would sometimes form the cavalry into separate Corps, so they would be able to move and mass more quickly without being slowed by the infantry or foot artillery. The main tactical units of the Corps were the divisions , usually consisting of 4, to 10, infantry or 2, to 4, cavalrymen. These in turn were made up of two or three brigades of two regiments apiece and supported by an artillery brigade of three or four batteries , each with six field cannons and two howitzers , making 24 to 32 guns in all.
Napoleon wanted it also to be an example for the entire army to follow, and a force that, since it had fought with him over several campaigns, was completely loyal.
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Although the infantry was rarely committed en masse, the Guard's cavalry was often thrown into battle as the killing blow and its artillery used to pound enemies prior to assaults. The cavalry of the Guard was involved in combat numerous times, and with few exceptions proved its worth in action. In , Napoleon had reinstated the term Regiment , the revolutionary term demi-brigade due to the fact there were two per brigade and it lacked the royal connotations was now only used for provisional troops and depot units.
There would eventually be Ligne regiments. A line infantry battalion was numbered at about men; however, this was the battalion's 'full strength' and few units ever reached this. A more typical strength for a battalion would be — men. From to a line infantry battalion had eight fusilier companies, and one grenadier company. From to a line infantry battalion had seven fusilier companies, one grenadier company, and one voltigeur company.
From to a line infantry battalion had four companies of fusiliers, one company of grenadiers, and one company of voltigeurs. According to the rules, every company was to have: privates, 1 Corporal-fourrier Clerk , 8 Corporals, 4 Sergeants, 1 Sergeant major, 2 second lieutenants, 1 first lieutenant and 1 capitain.
A French Line Infantry grenadier left and voltigeur right c. Grenadiers were the elite of the line infantry and the veteran shock troops of the Napoleonic infantry. Newly formed battalions did not have a Grenadier company; rather, Napoleon ordered that after two campaigns, several of the strongest, bravest and tallest fusiliers were to be promoted to the Grenadier company, so each line battalion which had seen more than two campaigns had one company of Grenadiers.
Regulations required that Grenadiers recruits were to be the tallest, most fearsome men in the regiments, and all were to have moustaches. After regulations stipulated that line Grenadiers were to replace their bearskin with a shako lined red with a red plume; however, many chose to retain their bearskins. In addition to the standard Charleville model and bayonet, Grenadiers were also equipped with a short sabre.
UNIFORMES DE L' ARMEE FRANCAISE DE FONTENOY A WATERLOO 1745-1815
This was to be used for close combat, but most often ended up serving as a tool to cut wood for campfires. The Grenadier company would usually be situated on the right side of a formation, traditionally the place of greatest honour. During a campaign, Grenadier companies could be detached to form a Grenadier battalion or occasionally a regiment or brigade.
These formations would then be used as a shock force or the Vanguard for a larger formation. In , Napoleon ordered that the smallest, most agile men of the line battalions be chosen to form a Voltigeur company. These troops were to be second only to the Grenadiers in the battalion hierarchy.
Their name comes from their original mission. Voltigeurs were to combat enemy cavalry by vaulting up onto the enemy's horses, a fanciful idea which failed to succeed in combat. Despite this, the Voltigeurs did perform a valuable task, skirmishing and providing scouts for each battalion, as well as providing an organic light infantry component for each line regiment. In Voltigeur training, emphasis was placed on marksmanship and quick movement.
Voltigeurs were equipped with large yellow and green or yellow and red plumes for their bicornes. After , their shakos were lined with yellow and carried similar plumes. They also had yellow epaulettes lined green and a yellow collar on their coats. Originally, Voltigeurs were to be equipped with the short dragoon musket, however in practice they were equipped with the Charleville model and bayonet. Like Grenadiers, Voltigeurs were equipped with a short sabre for close combat, and like Grenadiers this was rarely used.
Voltigeur companies could be detached and formed into regiments or brigades to create a light infantry formation. After , the Voltigeur company was situated on the left of the line when in combat. This was traditionally the second highest position of honour in the line of battle. The Fusilier was armed with a smoothbore , muzzle -loaded flintlock Charleville model musket and a bayonet. Fusilier training placed emphasis on speed of march and endurance, along with individually aimed fire at close range and close quarters combat.
This differed greatly from the training given to the majority of European armies, which emphasised moving in rigid formations and firing massed volleys. Many of the early Napoleonic victories were due to the ability of the French armies to cover long distances with speed, and this ability was thanks to the training given to the infantry.
From , each battalion comprised eight Fusilier companies. Each company numbered around men. In , one of the Fusilier companies was dissolved and reformed as a Voltigeur company. In , Napoleon reorganised the Infantry battalion from nine to six companies. The new companies were to be larger, comprising men, and four of these were to be made up of Fusiliers, one of Grenadiers, and one of Voltigeurs.
The line Fusilier wore a bicorne hat, until this was superseded by the shako in The uniform of a Fusilier consisted of white trousers, white surcoat and a dark blue coat the habit long model until , thereafter the habit veste with white lapels, red collar and cuffs. Each Fusilier wore a coloured pom-pom on his hat. The colour of this pom-pom changed depending on the company the man belonged to, as military uniforms reached their excessive pinnacle at around this period in time. After the reorganisation, the First company was issued with a dark green pom-pom, the second with sky blue , the third with orange and the fourth with violet.
The difference lay in the training and the resulting high esprit de corps. After two campaigns, the tallest and bravest chasseurs were chosen to join the Carabinier company. As with the grenadiers, Carabiniers were required to wear moustaches.
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