The region directly east of mainland Greece was populated with Greek speaking colonies, but by BC most of the region was controlled by Croesus , the fabulously wealthy king of Lydia. By BC the most powerful empire in the region was Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar. To the East of Babylon was the empire of the Medes Iran and the small kingdom of Persia, which was only a vassal kingdom of Media.
In BC, Cyrus the Great , the king of Persia started a career of conquests and brought all of the above mentioned regions, under his control. The Persian Kingdom, which arose under his leadership, became the most powerful Empire the Ancient world had ever seen. Cyrus ruled for 30 years, but died in on a campaign in Scythia. His Empire was briefly ruled by his son Cambyses who extended his conquests into Egypt, but died shortly thereafter. As Cambyses died with no heir, there was considerable palace intrigue before an heir was settled on, but the headship eventually fell to Darius the Great , the king who ordered the first unsuccessful Persian invasion of Greece.
The kingdoms of the east varied significantly in customs, religion and livelihood. They included sea-faring kingdoms, such as Phoenicia, agricultural kingdoms, such as Phrygia, and pastoral kingdoms, such as Media, but all were governed as autocracies. Cities and states paid tributes to the emperor, and all city administrators served at the pleasure of an autocratic higher authority. The idea of self-governing city-states was nearly unknown outside of the Greek colonies.
Even more striking and unique were the Greek ideas of satire and open dissent toward authority figures, and the idea that all citizens shared in the common culture. The Greeks were self-consciously civilized, and considered their neighbors, however wealthy and powerful, to be mere slaves. Read chapters from "core" texts before reviewing study questions. The Rise of Persia The Histories of Herodotus are most famous for their spellbinding account of the Persian War, but they also contain many fascinating stories about the rise of the Persian empire under.
Amasis II d. Cambyses d.
Battle of Salamis
Invaded Egypt, killed brother, then died. Her army defeated and killed Cyrus the Great. Schemed and plotted to return to Greece. Zopyrus d. Ionian Revolt Histiaeus d. Father in law of Aristagoras.
5 Dramatic Greek Wars Battles That Changed History Forever
Lead Persian forces at Marathon. Defeated at Battle of Salamis. Mardonius d. Close advisor to Darius and Xerxes. One of Xerxes most trusted advisors and Generals. Miltiades d.
Pheidippides d. Ran to Athens after Marathon, then died. Leonidas d.
He masterminded Athenian naval supremacy. Marathon, where the Persians landed, was actually Hippias' family land. The Athenians marched out to Marathon with a force of 10, hoplites. Looking down from the mountain, the Athenian commander, Miltiades, could see that he was severely out-numbered by the Persian invaders.
Miltiades was the perfect commander for this battle, since he was once a general in the Persian army. Miltiades sent a day-runner named Pheidippides to Sparta, miles away, to ask for help. The Spartans were observing a religious festival to Apollo and would not march until the next full moon, one week later.
Miltiades decided to attack the Persians. By thinning the middle of his phalanx, Miltiades was able to widen his army.
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The Persians were drawn into the weak Athenian middle and surrounded. Around 6, Persians died at Marathon, while the Greeks suffered dead. The Persians returned home, unable to defeat the Athenians. Darius died before he had a chance to attack the Athenians again, however, his son, Xerxes was now king, and he vowed to avenge his father's defeat.
In BC, Xerxes led a mighty invasion force from the north, as his father had tried earlier. For three days the Greek force of 10, men held back Xerxes army of possibly , soldiers.
argo-karaganda.kz/scripts/zezovaca/49.php On the third day, the Persians found a small path in the mountains and came around the other side of the defenders. Leonidas and the other Spartans lost their lives at Thermopylae; nothing was in the way of Xerxes army and the city of Athens. Since Athens had walls of stone, many were confused by this message. An Athenian name Themistocles was sure of this message. Earlier Athens had discovered a silver mine, and Themistocles convinced the Athenians to build warships with its new-found wealth. Themistocles told the Athenians that the "wall of wood" was the warships.
The Athenian population was evacuated to the nearby Island of Salamis. When Xerxes entered the city of Athens, he killed anyone who stayed behind, carried off the riches of the city, and razed Athens. Xerxes was successful where his father, Darius, had failed.
If Xerxes could defeat the Greeks on the sea, all of Greece would be his, including Sparta. Artemisia sent five warships from her homeland in support of the Great King. As soon as the pass of Thermopylae was lost, the Greek fleet worked full time to evacuate Athens and its surrounding communities to local islands. They were stationed on the island of Salamis, in sight of the ruins of Athens, when after a fit of contentious infighting, the decision was made to give battle to the Persians at once.
The famous naval Battle of Salamis ensued, during which the Greek fleet won a dramatic and decisive victory over the much larger Persian navy. The Persian fleet was destroyed, and Xerxes returned to Persia, leaving Mardonius in charge of the conquered region. It was not until the following year, however, that the Spartans realized that the Persians had no intention of meeting them at their fortified isthmus, and emerged from their Peloponnesian stronghold.
Then, at the hard-fought Battle of Plataea , they drove the all the Persians from the Greek mainland. At the Battle of Mycale , fought at the same time as Plataea, the Greeks won a major victory in Ionia, which freed the Island of Samos from Persian control, and Athens agreed to protect it. This was the beginning of the Delian league, and the foundation of the Athenian Empire. They kept the Persians at bay until a considerable force having passed the mountains by another part, they were attacked in the rear. They then retired to a hillock, and fought till the last man fell.
The Greeks at first hesitated to attack in face of the overwhelming numbers of the Persian ships, but an Athenian trireme, commanded by Aminias, dashed in, and being followed by the rest of the Athenians and the Aeginetans in good order, the Persians were, after a hard struggle, totally defeated, with the loss of more than half their fleet. Xerxes and his army witnessed the rout from the shores of Salamis. The Persians fought bravely, but were overborne by the superior discipline and heavier armour of the Greeks, and Mardonius falling, a panic ensued, and they fled to their entrenched camp.
This was stormed by the Athenians, and no quarter was given, with the result, it is said, that with the exception of a body of 40, which left the field early in the battle, only 3, Persians escaped. The Greeks effected a landing near Cape Mycale, and drove the Persians back upon their entrenchments, which they then carried by storm, whereupon the Persian auxiliaries fled.
The fugitives were slaughtered in detail by the revolted Ionians, and the whole army destroyed. Artemisia Queen of Halicarnassas and Cos. One of Xerxes most trusted advisors and Generals.
The Cause of the Battle of Marathon
Xerxes Raised an enormous army for Persian invasion of Greece. Defeated at Battle of Salamis.
Themistocles Athenian hero of the Battle of Salamis. He masterminded Athenian naval supremacy. Aristides Athenian General and Statesman. Fought at Marathon, Salamis; created Delian League.
Related The History: The Persian War on Greece, Athens and the Spartans at Thermopylae, Salamis and Marathon
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