The North Cross Route Major open spaces, Hampstead Heath and Regent's Park, limit east-west routes to a small corridor which is complicated by the rising land and railway lines in the vicinity of Finchley Road. At the western end the maximum advantage has been taken of a railway location both for the North Cross Route and the M1 extension.
Terse internal memos were dispatched to any Council officer forgetting that "D" Ring was no longer de rigeur , or old-fashioned enough to refer to "Radial Route 7" instead of M An artist's impression of a sunken motorway with parkland and playing fields on the roof, taken from GLC publicity. Where before there had just been a map of London overlaid with lines representing route ideas, the GLC's planners knew which sections would be completed by and which were "post".
They knew which would require three lanes and which needed four. They could tell you what the junctions would look like and where roads could have a roof added later to create green space on top.
Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
This was no longer a rough outline - it was the detailed blueprint for London's very certain future. Beyond London's boundaries, the Ministry of Transport had plans of its own. Bressey's proposals for North and South Orbital Roads through the green belt had never gone away and remained in the trunk road programme. That made, in effect, another ring road for London, and before long the MOT took to calling it Ringway 4 , though the term never seemed to find favour within the GLC. At first, the motorways had a respectable level of support, and borough councils were co-operative.
It was a rather cosy state of affairs that wouldn't last long. The publicity surrounding the motorway plans from onwards was supposed to create either a sense of excitement at the promising future shape of London, or possibly relief that the city's traffic problems were being addressed. Generally, however, each announcement was met with a mix of horror and dismay by the communities it affected.
The GLC didn't help itself with its choice of terminology. It repeatedly described the spaces it had identified for new roads as "Corridors of Opportunity", a term that couldn't fail to sound callous if your house was within one. One of the most notorious uses of the phrase was at Barnes, where a section of Ringway 2 would have passed through the pleasant and affluent suburb alongside the railway.
Few considered the new motorway an opportunity worth taking. An outline map from "Motorways for London", showing the typical level of detail in GLC publicity from the late s.
The public were actually still largely in the dark. The motorway plans were frequently debated at County Hall and were the subject of much speculation and anxiety, and yet their routes and construction timetable were maddeningly vague. London's local newspapers related a sense of heightening fear and frustration.
Their numbers were hugely inaccurate, but no official information was available to counter the scaremongering. The tone of this article is typical:. A Ministry spokesman said this week: 'All this is information in the keeping of Greater London Council'. A broad plan had been released, glossy leaflets had been distributed, and the details would follow in the GLDP. This strategy was partly about due process - the GLDP would almost certainly go to public inquiry and until that was over nothing was officially decided, so withholding details alleviated planning blight when things might change.
Indeed, during , the GLC repeatedly responded to letters from South London residents by insisting there was "no firm route" for the South Cross Route , a response that was technically and legally accurate but entirely misleading, given that engineering plans for the motorway were produced in Four years later the GLC would still be informing residents there was "no firm route" for this road. Of course, the people writing to ask about the future of their home were not alone. Michael Thomson, a research fellow at LSE and an expert in transport economics.
Its pages contained a wealth of academic research that directly countered the GLC's case for the motorway network. But as well as the growing discontent among the public, trouble was brewing behind the scenes. The houses, on Cadogan Terrace, are still there, now backing on to a major dual carriageway. Victoria Park is in the distance.
a. Traffic congestion and parking difficulties
The Chancellor would be grateful for a very early note about the plans for a London Motorway Box. In particular he would like to know the route proposed; the cost; the date of construction of the various stages; and what scope there is at this stage for killing the whole project.
Jenkins was trying to balance the books following the devaluation crisis of , and in his Budget speech just a few months later he would raise taxes dramatically to offset the Treasury's spending commitments. Cancelling future capital projects that were expensive and politically difficult would have been a good way to stay in the black, and the GLC's flagship motorway proposal was both colossally expensive and increasingly controversial. The reply from the Treasury said:.
The Chancellor spoke to the Minister of Transport this afternoon about the London Motorway Box, and was glad to find that the Minister shares his own disapproval of the scheme. Apple challenges the status quo with everything they do — MacBooks, iTunes and iPads are just how they do that.
Formulate a Winning Business Strategy in 5 Steps, Measure Impact
While Apple talk about pushing humanity forward and challenging the status quo, Dell talk about the size of their processors and RAM. Is it any wonder why people queue for hours to get the latest product, while Dell receive nowhere near the level of advocacy, despite their products being very similar. Does your messaging communicate why your startup exists? Do you know your why? If not, this is an important step that I would not advise skipping over. Various studies predict we see between 1, — 5, advertisements per day depending on where we live. How do you compete and stand out with your marketing in such a saturated space?
Our brain categorises similar pieces of information together, a process known as Gestalt.
Urban Transport Challenges
Because of this, the more of a similar thing we see, the less impact each additional thing has. When Lady Gaga wore a dress made of meat it made headlines all over the World.
When others copied her quirkiness, hardly anyone talked. This pattern has repeated itself millions of times over. This is not about first-mover advantage; this is about observing what everyone else is, and being the opposite. I disagree. I believe that marketing should focus on positive ROI return on investment. Another reason for using paid media is to establish a cost-per-acquisition, as this will act as a benchmark to compare all other marketing activity. Paid media channels fall into three broad categories: display, search, and affiliate marketing.
Similarly to above, Google enable you to purchase banner adverts through their display network. You can specify which websites your banner ad appears on, or bid to appear on websites related to certain keywords. Reddit is often overlooked as a paid marketing channel. Reddit advertising works by running ads at the top of any subreddit of your choice. Each subreddit has a very distinct community, so it pays to get involved in each one for a bit of time first before running ads.
Google Remarketing goes one step beyond the standard display advertising mentioned above. Essentially, when someone visits your website a cookie is dropped on their computer. When they visit other websites, an ad will appear encouraging them to come back to your website. You can get very smart with this by running different remarketing ads for different stages of your signup funnel. The trick is to get the frequency right and not be overly annoying! In other words, someone visits your website and bounces.
While the quality of visitors from StumbleUpon is generally quite low, the cost per click is exceptionally low also, enabling you to buy a large amount of traffic for a low cost. StumbleUpon is very visual social network where inspirational and stimulating content seems to spread virally. If you a SAAS company promoting an app, it may be a little bit trickier. If you do have this sort of budget to invest, then Twitter Ads do tend to be pretty effective when done right.
Related Strategic Planning in London. The Rise and Fall of the Primary Road Network
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