Visible Injury Visible O3-like injury in foliage of holm oak appeared as depressed, tiny, necrotic and intercostal stipples amid still green leaf tissue Fig. Figure 7. Microscopic Symptoms The leaf blade structure of the investigated holm oak leaves showed xeromorphic traits typical of a Mediterranean evergreen tree and which include a thick leaf lamina, thick-walled and lignified epidermis, thick cuticle and lower leaf side stomata protected by a thick and dense layer of hair Fig.
Figure 8. Structural and histochemical changes in the leaf blade. Figure 9. Seasonal variation of stomatal conductance gs.
Table 1 Significance P-values of two-way analysis of variance. Factor d. Leaf Biomass Partition and LMA At both intensive study sites, the youngest leaf generation formed the highest biomass fraction in the analyzed branches Fig.
Figure Table 2 Mean leaf mass per area. Discussion Stipples as Structural Injury Due to Ozone Stress Within the analyzed holm oak leaves, the stipple morphology and the changes observed at cell level were typical of those associated with acute O3 stress as described for deciduous broadleaved species  , . Increased Ozone Uptake in Holm Oak Foliage as a Trade-off for Site Irrigation By raising gs in Atocha versus Escalonilla, irrigation was confirmed to increase O3 uptake during the whole day and alleviate the midday gas exchange reduction during peak O3 hours.
Leaf Xeromorphy and Irrigation Whatever the leaf generation, the leaf xeromorphy was not affected by irrigation, as indicated by similar LMA at both study sites. Conclusions In synthesis, the initial O3 symptom diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of the macro- and micro-morphological changes found in irrigated holm oak foliage objective 1. References 1. Paoletti E Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review. Environ Pollut : — Scientific World J 1 : EEA Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during the summer season April- August and comparisons with previous years.
Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April—September EEA Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer J Geophys Res : — Chemosphere 36 : — A guide to the identification of ozone-induced foliar injury. Bern: Haupt. Environ Pollut : 31— Porter E Ozone sensitive plant species on national park service and U. US Department of the Interior. NPS D Physiol Plant : — Ann Bot 92 : — New Phytol : — Physiol Plant 92 : — Stress bei Pflanzen.
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Gratani L Structural and ecophysiological plasticity of some evergreen species of the Mediterranean maquis in response to climate. Photosynthetica 31 : — Cunningham SA, Summerhayes B, Westoby M Evolutionary divergences in leaf structure and chemistry, comparing rainfall and soil nutrient gradients.
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Ecology 69 : — Sandermann H Molecular ecotoxicology of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9 : — Foyer CH, Noctor G Oxidant and antioxidant signalling in plants: a re- evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell Environ 28 : — Planta : — Can J For Res 27 : — Plant Dis Rep 61 : — Sanz MJ, Calatayud V Ozone injury in European Forest Species. University of Kuopio, Dept. ICP Modelling and Mapping. Manual on methodologies and criteria for modeling and mapping critical loads and levels and air pollution effects, risks and trends.
Environ Pollut : 41— Environ Pollut : 55— Galle A, Florez-Sarasa I, Aououad H E, Flexas J The Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex and the semi-deciduous Cistus albidus differ in their leaf gas exchange regulation and acclimation to repeated drought and re-watering cycles. J Exp Bot 62 : — Pardos M, Royo A, Pardos J A Growth, nutrient, water relations and gas exchange in a holm oak plantation in response to irrigation and fertilization. New Forests 30 : 75— Part I: Micrometeorological flux measurements and flux partitioning. Atmos Environ 41 : — Ecology 80 : — New Phytol : 75— Environmental pollution and plant responses.
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Forest decline and ozone. Ecological Studies Berlin: Springer. Gratani L, Varone L Long-time variations in leaf mass and area of Mediterranean evergreen broad-leaf and narrow-leaf maquis species. Photosynthetica 44 : — Romane, F. Physical Description vi, p. Series Advances in vegetation science ; 13 Advances in vegetation science ; v.
Holm oak -- Ecophysiology -- Congresses. Forest ecology -- Mediterranean Region -- Congresses. Forest management -- Mediterranean Region -- Congresses. Contents Machine derived contents note: Preface. Theme A: Biogeography and History. Theme B: Structure, Productivity and Dynamics. Theme C: Water Relationships. Theme D: Nutrient Cycling and Budget. Theme E: Management. Temperature-vegetation structure interaction: the effect on the activity of the ant Messor barbarus L. What are the consequences of being a downy oak Quercus pubescens or a holm oak Q. The influence of summer and winter stress and water relationships on the distribution of Quercus ilex L.
Quercus ilex facing water stress: a functional equilibrium hypothesis. Evaluation of actual evapotranspiration of a Quercus ilex L. Comparison of the hydrological characteristics of three small experimental holm oak forested catchments in NE Spain in relation to larger areas. Daily and seasonal variation in water relations of macchia shrubs and trees in France Montpellier and Turkey Antalya. Organic matter distribution and fluxes within a holm oak Quercus ilex L.
The efficiency of nitrogen retranslocation from leaf biomass in Quercus ilex ecosystems. Decomposition rate of Quercus rotundifolia leaves in an evergreen oak forest of the Duero Basin Province of Zamora, Spain. Productivity and nutrient uptake in a holm oak Quercus ilex L. Variation in tissue element concentrations in Quercus ilex L. Preliminary results of a fertilization-irrigation experiment in a Quercus ilex L.
The role of Diplopoda litter grazing activity on recycling processes in a Mediterranean climate.
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Ecological dynamics of Quercus dominated woodlands in California and southern Spain: a state-transition model. Ecology of vegetative regeneration after coppicing in macchia stands in central Italy. Regeneration by sprouting of holm-oak Quercus ilex stands exploited by selection thinning. Effect of cleaning and thinning on height growth and girth increment in holm oak coppices Quercus ilex L.
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