Mail Online. Associated Press. Retrieved 16 March Poker computer trounces humans in big step for AI". Retrieved 19 March ACM Communications. August Scientific American. The Guardian US ed. Retrieved 23 April After a controversial debut, Google now says yes". Retrieved 17 May Categories : Computing timelines History of artificial intelligence. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 errors: deprecated parameters Use dmy dates from August Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references Articles needing additional references from March Namespaces Article Talk.
Symbolic Deep learning Bayesian networks Evolutionary algorithms. Timeline Progress AI winter. Applications Projects Programming languages. Greek myths of Hephaestus and Pygmalion incorporated the idea of intelligent robots such as Talos and artificial beings such as Galatea and Pandora. Yan Shi presented King Mu of Zhou with mechanical men. Sacred mechanical statues built in Egypt and Greece were believed to be capable of wisdom and emotion. Hermes Trismegistus would write "they have sensus and spiritus Aristotle described the syllogism , a method of formal, mechanical thought and theory of knowledge in The Organon.
Heron of Alexandria created mechanical men and other automatons. Geber develops the Arabic alchemical theory of Takwin , the artificial creation of life in the laboratory, up to and including human life. Al-Jazari created a programmable orchestra of mechanical human beings.
Ramon Llull , Spanish theologian invents the Ars Magna , a tool for combining concepts mechanically, based on an Arabic astrological tool, the Zairja. The method would be developed further by Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century. Paracelsus claimed to have created an artificial man out of magnetism, sperm and alchemy.
Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel of Prague is said to have invented the Golem , a clay man brought to life. Sir Francis Bacon develops empirical theory of knowledge and introduces inductive logic in his work The New Organon , a play on Aristotle 's title The Organon.
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Wilhelm Schickard drew a calculating clock on a letter to Kepler. Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan and presented a mechanical, combinatorial theory of cognition. He wrote " Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator ,  the first digital calculating machine . Gottfried Leibniz improved the earlier machines, making the Stepped Reckoner to do multiplication and division.
He also invented the binary numeral system and envisioned a universal calculus of reasoning alphabet of human thought by which arguments could be decided mechanically. Leibniz worked on assigning a specific number to each and every object in the world, as a prelude to an algebraic solution to all possible problems. Jonathan Swift published Gulliver's Travels , which includes this description of the Engine , a machine on the island of Laputa : "a Project for improving speculative Knowledge by practical and mechanical Operations " by using this "Contrivance", "the most ignorant Person at a reasonable Charge, and with a little bodily Labour, may write Books in Philosophy, Poetry, Politicks, Law, Mathematicks, and Theology, with the least Assistance from Genius or study.
Wolfgang von Kempelen built and toured with his chess -playing automaton , The Turk. Mary Shelley published the story of Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus , a fictional consideration of the ethics of creating sentient beings. The mathematician Bernard Bolzano made the first modern attempt to formalize semantics. George Boole set out to "investigate the fundamental laws of those operations of the mind by which reasoning is performed, to give expression to them in the symbolic language of a calculus", inventing Boolean algebra.
Samuel Butler suggested that Darwinian evolution also applies to machines, and speculates that they will one day become conscious and eventually supplant humanity.
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Leonardo Torres y Quevedo built a chess automaton, El Ajedrecista and published speculation about thinking and automata. Rossum's Universal Robots opened in London. This is the first use of the word " robot " in English. Ludwig Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap lead philosophy into logical analysis of knowledge. Alonzo Church develops Lambda Calculus to investigate computability using recursive functional notation.
To do this he had to build a universal, integer-based programming language, which is the reason why he is sometimes called the "father of theoretical computer science ". Konrad Zuse built the first working program-controlled computers. Wiener's popular book by that name published in Game theory which would prove invaluable in the progress of AI was introduced with the paper, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern.
John von Neumann quoted by E. Jaynes in response to a comment at a lecture that it was impossible for a machine to think: "You insist that there is something a machine cannot do. If you will tell me precisely what it is that a machine cannot do, then I can always make a machine which will do just that! Von Neumann was presumably alluding to the Church-Turing thesis which states that any effective procedure can be simulated by a generalized computer.
Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test as a measure of machine intelligence. Claude Shannon published a detailed analysis of chess playing as search. Isaac Asimov published his Three Laws of Robotics. The first working AI programs were written in to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester : a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. Arthur Samuel IBM wrote the first game-playing program,  for checkers draughts , to achieve sufficient skill to challenge a respectable amateur.
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His first checkers-playing program was written in , and in he created a version that learned to play. McCarthy coins the term artificial intelligence for the conference. Shaw and Herbert A. This is often called the first AI program, though Samuel's checkers program also has a strong claim.
More reading : What are the limitations of linear regression modeling in data analysis? A feature vector is an n-dimensional vector that contains essential information that describes the characteristics of an object. In AI and data science, feature vectors can be used to represent numeric or symbolic characteristics of an object in mathematical terms for seamless analysis.
A data set is usually organized into multiple examples where each example will have several features.
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Instead, each example will correspond to one feature vector that will contain all the numerical values for that example object. Feature vectors are often stacked into a design matrix. In this scenario, each row will be a feature vector for one example. Each column will feature all the examples that correspond to that particular feature.
This means that it will be like a matrix, but with just one row and multiple columns or a single column and multiple rows like [1,2,3,5,6,3,2,0]. More reading : Extract a feature vector for any image with PyTorch. In lists, elements maintain their order unless they are explicitly commanded to re-order. These can be made up of any data type that can be all the same or mixed. However, elements in lists can only be accessed via numeric, zero-based indices.
However, each entry will be assigned a key and a value. As a result, elements within a dictionary can be accessed by using their individual key. So whenever you have a set of unique keys, you have to use a dictionary.
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