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Seller Inventory BBS Seller Inventory BZE Jerry Bobrow. Publisher: Cliffs Notes , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Master the Basics—Fast Complete coverage of core concepts Easy topic-by-topic organization Access hundreds of practice problems at CliffsNotes. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Published by Cliffs Notes New Paperback Quantity Available: 1. Ebooksweb Bensalem, PA, U. Job titles for these first-line managers vary greatly, but include such designations as department head, group leader, and unit leader.
First-line managers ensure that their work teams or units meet performance objectives, such as producing a set number of items at a given quality, that are consistent with the plans of middle and top management. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning,organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include increas- ing advertising, inventory, and sales staff.
These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales. Assigning work and grant- ing authority are two important elements of organizing. She must also lead. Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging.
It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions,but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on boththe level of management and the specific organization.
Roles performed by managersA manager wears many hats. Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or he is also a planner, organizer, cheerleader, coach, problem solver, and deci-sion maker — all rolled into one. These roles fall into threecategories: s Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. Disseminator Forward information to organization members via memos, reports, and phone calls.
Spokesperson Transmit information to outsiders via reports, memos, and speeches. Chapter 1: The Nature of Management 7Category Role ActivityInterpersonal Figurehead Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties, such as greeting visitors and signing legal documents. Leader Direct and motivate subordinates; counsel and communicate with subordinates. Liaison Maintain information links both inside and outside organization via mail, phone calls, and meetings.
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Decisional Entrepreneur Initiate improvement projects; identify new ideas and delegate idea responsibility to others. Disturbance Take corrective action during disputes or handler crises; resolve conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environments. Resource Decide who gets resources; prepare allocator budgets; set schedules and determine priorities. Negotiator Represent department during negotiations of union contracts, sales, purchases, and budgets.
Skills needed by managersNot everyone can be a manager. Certain skills, or abilities to translateknowledge into action that results in desired performance, are required tohelp other employees become more productive. These skills fall under thefollowing categories: s Technical: This skill requires the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. Accountants, engineers, market researchers, and computer scientists, as examples, possess technical skills. Managers acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them through training and job experience.
Technical skills are most important at lower levels of management. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and genuine involvement in interpersonal rela- tionships. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self-awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills, while others improve their skills through classes Ana- lytical skills enable managers to break down problems into smaller parts, to see the relations among the parts, and to recognize the impli- cations of any one problem for others.
As managers assume ever- higher responsibilities in organizations, they must deal with more ambiguous problems that have long-term consequences.
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Again, man- agers may acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them by training and job experience. The higher the management level, the more important conceptual skills become. Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers, their rel-ative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helpingpeople acquire technical, human, and conceptual skills, and develop spe-cific competencies, or specialized skills, that contribute to high perfor-mance in a management job.
Following are some of the skills and personalcharacteristics that the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Busi-ness AACSB is urging business schools to help their students develop. Chapter 1: The Nature of Management 9Dispelling Common Management MythsSome employees have a hard time describing exactly what their managersdo on a typical day.
But that misconception is just one of severalmyths that are very different from the many realities of management. Thefollowing examples discuss not only the most common myths about man-agers but also the realities. Today, the concepts of TQM which are discussed in Chapter 15 indicate that organizations function better if resources and knowledge are shared and individuals work together as a team. Managers are self-starting, self-directing, and autonomous.
Managers have no regular duties to perform. Managers are reflective and systematic planners.
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Answers: 1. Honda, a rather dramatic year-old manufacturer, experienced fortunes duringearly s when its market share slipped to 4 late s andKawasaki, and Yamaha motorcycles had come roaring into America fromJapan, offering not only low prices but also higher quality, state-of-the-artmachines. At first, Harley-Davidson accused Japan of selling below cost just to get itsmotorcycles into the American market.
After somecareful investigation, Beals found that Harley-Davidson was using outmodedproduction technology. This chapter examines the evolution of management thought bydescribing several management theories and philosophies that have emergedover the years. Most of the evolutionary changes and new perspectivesoccurred as a result of the Industrial Revolution that transformed agricul-tural societies into industrial societies.
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Today, management thinking con-tinues to evolve to meet the challenges of rapid and dramatic societal changes. Classical Schools of ManagementOne of the first schools of management thought, the classical managementtheory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problemsrelated to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of howto train employees many of them non-English speaking immigrants or dealwith increased labor dissatisfaction, so they began to test solutions.
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This school of thought is made up oftwo branches: classical scientific and classical administrative, described in thefollowing sections. Classical scientific schoolThe classical scientific branch arose because of the need to increaseproductivity and efficiency. The emphasis was on trying to find the bestway to get the most work done by examining how the work process wasactually accomplished and by scrutinizing the skills of the workforce. The classical scientific school owes its roots to several major contributors,including Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.
As an example, in , Taylor calculated how much iron from railcars Bethlehem Steel plant workers could be unloading if they were usingthe correct movements, tools, and steps. The result was an amazing In addition, by redesigning the shovels the workers used, Taylor was able toincrease the length of work time and therefore decrease the number of peo-ple shoveling from to Lastly, he developed an incentive system thatpaid workers more money for meeting the new standard. Productivity atBethlehem Steel shot up overnight. Based on time instead of quantity, volume, or weight, this visualdisplay chart has been a widely used planning and control tool since itsdevelopment in Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, a husband-and-wife team, studied jobmotions.
He watched bricklayers and sawthat some workers were slow and inefficient, while others were very pro-ductive. He discovered that each bricklayer used a different set of motionsto lay bricks. From his observations, Frank isolated the basic movementsnecessary to do the job and eliminated unnecessary motions.
Workers usingthese movements raised their output from 1, to 2, bricks per day. This was the first motion study designed to isolate the best possible methodof performing a given job. Later, Frank and his wife Lillian studied jobmotions using a motion-picture camera and a split-second clock. When herhusband died at the age of 56, Lillian continued their work. Thanks to these contributors and others, the basic ideas regarding scien-tific management developed. They include the following: s Developing new standard methods for doing each job s Selecting, training, and developing workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves s Developing a spirit of cooperation between workers and manage- ment to ensure that work is carried out in accordance with devised procedures s Dividing work between workers and management in almost equal shares, with each group taking over the work for which it is best fittedClassical administrative schoolWhereas scientific management focused on the productivity of individu-als, the classical administrative approach concentrates on the total organi-zation.
The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles ratherthan work methods. These theorists studied theflow of information within an organization and emphasized the impor-tance of understanding how an organization operated. He believedthat organizations should be managed impersonally and that a formal orga-nizational structure, where specific rules were followed, was important. This nonpersonal, objective form of organizationwas called a bureaucracy.
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